I. Studies showing that depression has increased in youth starting in 2012 when phone ownership increased dramatically

STUDY TITLE: National Trends in the Prevalence and Treatment of Depression in Adolescents and Young Adults

MAIN FINDING: 12-month prevalence of major depressive episodes (MDE) in adolescents between 2005 and 2014 based on yearly surveys about symptoms. The 12-month prevalence of MDE 2005 to 2011 but has gradually increased starting in 2012.

Ref: Ramin et al. (2016) American Academy of Pediatrics

STUDY TITLE: Key Substance Use and Mental Health Indicators in the United States: Results from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health

MAIN FINDING: In 2015, 12.5 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (3.0 million adolescents) had an major depressive episode during the past year. The percentage of adolescents in 2015 who had a major depressive episode was higher than the percentages in 2004 to 2014.

Ref: Jonaki Bose, et al. (2016) Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality

STUDY TITLE: Decreases in Psychological Well-Being Among American Adolescents After 2012 and Links to Screen Time During the Rise of Smartphone Technology

MAIN FINDING: In a yearly survey that included 8th and 12th graders, psychological well-being (measured by self-esteem, life satisfaction, and happiness) suddenly decreased after 2012. Eighth graders who spent more time on screens (e.g., social media, gaming) and less time on non-screen activities (e.g., in-person social interaction) had lower psychological well-being. Twelfth-graders reported near identical levels of happiness regardless whether they were on the higher or lower end of social media usage.

Ref: Jean Twenge et al (2018) Emotion



STUDY TITLE: Cyber victimization in middle school and relations to social emotional outcomes

MAIN FINDINGS: Cyber victimization and social emotional outcomes varied by gender, with girls suffering more than boys. Data collected from 106 middle school students via questionnaires.

Ref: Christina F.Brown,Michelle Kilpatrick Demaray, Stephanie M.Secord, Computers in Human Behavior (2014), v. 12-21


STUDY TITLE: Cyberbullying Matters: Examining the Incremental Impact of Cyberbullying On Outcomes Over and Above Traditional Bullying in North America

MAIN FINDING: Close to 14.6 million youth may experience traditional bullying and 6.2 million may experience cyberbullying as either a victim or perpetrator.

Ref: Anthony, B.J., Wessler, S.L., & Sebian, J.K. (2010) Commentary: Guiding a public health approach to bullying. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, v. 35, 1113-1115


STUDY TITLE: Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization Among Middle-School Students

MAIN FINDING: Cyberbully perpetrators, victims, and perpetrators–victims all were more likely to report using the Internet for at least 3 hours per day.

Ref: Rice  et al. October 14, 2014 Published Online: February 09, 2015


STUDY TITLE: Cyberbullying Prevalence Among US Middle and High School–Aged Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Quality Assessment

MAIN FINDING: Links to physical and mental health problems including depression, suicidality, substance use and somatic symptoms are linked to cyberbullying.

Ref: Ellen M. Selkie, et al. (2016), Journal of Adolescent Health, V. 58, 125–133